Greek Parts of Speech
(simple - "most common use")

Directional Prepositions

ek - out of/from - preposition indicating directional outward
a primary preposition denoting origin (the point whence action or motion proceeds), from, out (of place, time, or cause; literal or figurative.

eis - preposition indicating directional inward
into, unto, to, towards, for, among
a primary preposition denoting movement inward; literal or figurative.

en - in/by/with - preposition indicating fixed position
a primary preposition denoting (fixed) position (in place, time or state), and (by implication) instrumentality (medially or constructively).

epi - on/upon/over - preposition indicating
  position of being on or over
a primary preposition whose primary signification is "upon".

Primary Preposition - "Source Clauses"

apo - preposition indicating from the ULTIMATE source of

para - preposition indicating from the IMMEDIATE source of

Primary Preposition - "That Clauses"

dia - preposition indicating by means of
a primary preposition denoting the channel of an act. Often the full translation would be "by the instrumentality of"

hina - indicates a prepositional clause indicating
  "for the purpose that"/"with the result that"
a "that" clause.


te - not only . . . but also; both . . . and; as . . . so
a primary particle (enclitic) of connection or addition

alla - but in contrast
Conjunction - an exception, objection, restriction, idea following differs. Very similar to "but". But, for consistency, I will try to always
use "but in contrast" when alla is used.

de - Howbeit/Moreover/But
Very similar to "But" in the English. But, "alla" is closer to our "but" so this one I will use "Howbeit". Sometimes translated "moreover".

kai - and
Very similar to "and" in the English.

Verb/Participle Types

perfect - Means the results are permanent.
  The participle should be translated some form of "with results that
  last forever."

middle - The middle voice indicates the subject performing an action upon himself - reflexive.

active - the subject produces the action

passive - the subject receives the action

past, present, future tense - tenses are same as with the English

aorist tense - indicates the action happens at different points of

participle - a participle is a verbal adjective. It shares in part the characteristics of both the verb and the adjective. As a verb it has both tense functions and functions which may be designated as modal functions, being analogous to those which in the case of verbs in the Indicative, Subjunctive, or Optative belong to the mood. The action of the participle precedes the action of the main verb.

Indicate mood - statement of fact

Subjunctive mood - the mood of contingency (maybe yes, maybe no).

Optative mood - the optative mood of verbs usually expresses a wish; it is equivalent in meaning to English let's or if only.

Imperative mood - an order - this is a command


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